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Drug mules in drug syndicates and its impact to human security in Malaysia

Marimuthu, Premelatha and Mat, Bakri (2018) Drug mules in drug syndicates and its impact to human security in Malaysia. Journal of Governance and Development, 14 (1). pp. 59-67. ISSN 2289-4756

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UNDP’s Human Development Report 1994 is perhaps among the earliest documents that recognized human security, a concept which eventually led to its frequent use among scholars and practitioners in the International Relations study. Relevantly, the study of drug trafficking from a human security perspective represents a significant shift from the mainstream paradigm which focuses more on state-centric rather than an individual human being. In Malaysia, the drug trafficking issue has been of great concern since the 1970s, not only to the public but also the government. This country has long been in the grasp of drug trafficking phenomena.Despite numerous efforts, prevention programmes, law implementations and regional initiatives in combating this issue, the struggle to eradicate or even minimize the problem has never been achieved fully. Drug trafficking trend in the country has evolved to a much greater phase. The trend now becomes more serious and life-threatening in recent times when human - also known as a drug-mule - are increasingly exploited and used as a tool to transport drugs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the modus operandi of drug trafficking network using ‘drug mule’ as a transporter of drugs in Malaysia. In contrast to the mainstream state centric-based paradigm in international relations, this issue will be analysed from a human security perspective by utilizing the existing literature, such as books, journals, reports, magazines and newspapers. Preliminary findings from the literature suggest that drug trafficking continue to pose a threat to human security. The overarching goals of protecting human security cannot be achieved without the commitments from both the government and the international community.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Human security, International Relations, Drug trafficking, Drug mules.
Subjects: K Law > KZ Law of Nations
Divisions: School of International Studies
Depositing User: Mrs. Norazmilah Yaakub
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2020 06:18
Last Modified: 11 Jun 2020 06:18
URI: http://repo.uum.edu.my/id/eprint/27091

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