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Penal settlement as a socio-economic engineering apparatus: A case study of Thailand during the 1930s - the 1940s

Surakiat, Pamaree (2013) Penal settlement as a socio-economic engineering apparatus: A case study of Thailand during the 1930s - the 1940s. In: 1st International Conference on Innovation and Sustainability (ICOIS 2013), 3-4 April 2013, Sunway Resort Hotel & Spa Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (Unpublished)

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Penal Settlement was one of the socio-economic apparatuses not only widely practiced by western colonizers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but also employed by native Southeast Asian governers in the twentieth century. Purposes of utilizing penal colonies were various: locking up dangerous criminals or political prisoners in isolated area; replacing slavery system for the Authorities' demands of cheap labors for public works; correctional facilitating prisoners to reintegrate into the society after finishing their sentences.Penal settlement scheme was fully promoted by -Thai government in the 1930x and the 1940s.The first penal settlement was Thanto Penal Settlement in Yala, the southernmost province of Thailand, which was established in 1935.The second, yet more well-known one, was Tarutao Prison Island in the Andaman Sea.Thai government of that period publicized mainly the economic advantages of setting up penal settlement.It was said that Thai society would benefit from this project: isolating prisoners from the normal society; solving the overcrowded prison problems; providing vocational training to the convicts; turning unproductive prisoners to useful human resources; inexpensive labor for developing country's infrastructure.'There were the pros and cons of applying penal settlements.Consequently, the Tarutao Prison Island was abolished in 1948; while the Thanto Penal Settlement was closed in 1957.Approximately twenty years afterwards, Klongpai Penal Settlement in Nakornrachasima province, the last penal settlement of Thailand was established in 1977 and it ceased convict transportation in 1990.This paper aims at examining, firstly, the economic potentials of the Deep South in the 1930s and in the 1940s; secondly, the operations and activities of the Thanto Penal Settlement; and lastly, the result of its operations.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Additional Information: Organizer: School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia Partner with: Sunway University & HUSO
Subjects: K Law > K Law (General)
Divisions: College of Law, Government and International Studies
Depositing User: Mrs. Norazmilah Yaakub
Date Deposited: 27 Aug 2013 07:45
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2013 07:45
URI: http://repo.uum.edu.my/id/eprint/8794

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